The second curiosity, following on from Antarctica – what’s under the ice cap? Part 1, comes from the lost squadron of Second World War.
Lockheed Lightnings were abandoned in Greenland in 1942. Fifty one years later Patrick Epps reclaimed them 250 feet under the ice cap! But this very feat revealed that the layers of ice were not annual, as is presumed by modern science.
Each layer was a reflection of ice melt boundaries after each storm. Ice core studies from GISP, Camp David, Vostok and all others, rely on the paradigm of one layer equals one year. All isotopic and chemical analysis assumes this fundamental delineation.
The revealing quote comes from expedition organiser Richard Epps. He puzzlingly remarked
Who told you one layer equals one year. We dug down through fifty years of time and found thousands of layers in 250 feet.
Antarctica is the coldest place on Earth. The Katabotic winds howl around it’s gale thrashed coast. But once its green valley’s were filled with thriving Glossopteris Pine and Beach forests. How do we know this?
“Scott of the Antarctic” was the first to discover tell tale fossils on the Beardmore Glacier in 1912. Since then Petrified tree stumps and leaves, bones of dinosaurs, marsupials and fossil rich coal has been discovered in its, now, hostile environment.
According to classic geology, this previous lush age thrived millions of years ago in the
Permian age. The shifting Antarctic continent, inexorably plodding at millimetres per year, gradually moved into icy hibernation. The flora and fauna were iced over, slowly fossilized and left to slumber. Just as in Greenland and Canada with their fossil forests!
Antarctica desert but 3KM thick ice sheet?
But wait! This formation of a three kilometre thick ice sheet is no meagre feat. Antarctica contains ninety percent of the world’s ice, yet some of Antarctica’s valleys are the driest places on earth. Antarctica is technically considered a desert.
Incredibly little snow falls in the interior (five centimetres per year rain equivalent) where the ice sheet is considerably thicker. Katabotic snow storms reside only on the coast where the thinner ice. Contradiction? Nevertheless, classic Geologists argue that, eons of time can explain away these ice sheet anomalies.
Antarctica covers an area of almost 14 million square km and contains 30 million cubic km of ice. Around 90 percent of the fresh water on the Earth’s surface is held in the ice sheet, an amount equivalent to 70 m of water in the world’s oceans. In East Antarctica, the ice sheet rests on a major land mass, but in West Antarctica the bed can extend to more than 2500m below sea level. The land would be seabed if the ice sheet were not there. Ice enters the sheet through snow and frost and leaves by calving of icebergs and melting, usually at the base but also sometimes at the surface
What If All the Ice Melts? Myths and Realities
by Wm Robert Johnston
“If we keep using cars, the ice caps will melt and we’ll all drown!” This is a myth, just as false as fearing the Sun will die as a result of using solar power. However, as often as I hear it – particularly from people who should know better – I thought I would address it here. First, here is a summary of the facts: Despite what you may have been told, it has NOT been proven that human-caused global warming is occurring, and in fact there is substantial reason to reject such claims.
Antarctica was not always so cold and remote. Geologist Molly Miller of Vanderbilt University discovered, in the Beardmore Glacier area of Antarctica, the remains of three ancient deciduous forests complete with fossils of fallen leafs scattered around the petrified tree stumps “These were not scrubby little things,” Miller said. “These were big trees.”
Unlike any trees today, Glossopteris trees lived in stands as thick as almost a thousand per acre just 20 or 25 degrees from the South Pole, latitude at which today they would have received no sunlight for half the year. This powerful evidence that when they grew the Antarctic was in a semi tropical zone. As for what they looked like, Glossopteris tapered upwards like a Christmas tree. Instead of needles, they had large, broad lance-shaped leaves that fell to the ground at the end of summer.
Miller says they lived at a time when the Antarctic climate was much warmer. Some are estimated to have attained heights of 80 feet (24.6 meters), based on their trunk diameter. Miller, Tim Cully and graduate student Nichole Knepprath came upon the three stands of the lost forests in December 2003.These trees are alive today but only grow in warm moist areas such as Queensland Australia.
The change that caused the electric fossilization of the trees probably resulted in a dramatic effect which most likely caused severe climate change . The same process would have destroyed the fossils of marsupials discovered underneath Antarctic ice.
The Oronteus Finaeus map (Oronteus Fineus map) shows an ice free Antarctica.
As well as the Piri Reis map their exists another anomaly. The Oronteus Finaeus map, also spelled Oronteus Fineus map, was incredibly precise. It too shows an ice free Antartica with no ice-cap. It was drawn in the year 1532. There are also maps showing Greenland as two separated islands, as it was confirmed by a polar French expedition which found out that there is an ice cap quite thick joining what it is actually two islands.
Another amazing chart is the one drawn by the Turkish Hadji Ahmed, year 1559, in which he shows a land stripe, about 1600 Km wide, that joins Alaska and Siberia. Such a natural bridge has been then covered by the water due to the end of the glacial period, which rose up the sea level.
In 1929, a group of historians found an amazing map drawn on a gazelle skin. Research showed that it was a genuine document drawn in 1513 by Piri Reis, a famous admiral of the Turkish fleet in the sixteenth century. His passion was cartography.
Piri Reis high rank within the Turkish navy allowed him to have a privileged access to the Imperial Library of Constantinople. The Turkish admiral admits, in a series of notes on the map, that he compiled and copied the data from a large number of source maps, some of which dated back to the fourth century BC or earlier.
Piri Reis map of Antarctica
- The age of the Antarctic ice sheet is no more than six thousand years old
- The validity of the Vostok Antarctic ice core methodology is disputed
Antarctica today is covered by an ice sheet up to 5 kilometres thick. It is the coldest place on Earth. It is amazingly the driest desert on earth with snow only falling around its wind blasted boundaries.
But it was not always so cold and remote. Geologist Molly Miller of Vanderbilt University discovered, in the Beardmore Glacier area of Antarctica, the remains of three ancient deciduous forests complete with fossils of fallen leafs scattered around the petrified tree stumps These trees are alive today but only grow in warm moist areas such as Queensland Antarctic also harbor’s bones of extinct marsupials and Dinosaurs with massive coal beds full of once flourishing flora and fauna.