THE LITTLE ICE AGE 1280-1850 AD – GISP2 volcanic markers, Isotopic Oxygen 16, Paleoclimate,, sunspot observations, Magnetosphere, NASA, severe sea floods, Ian Plimer, Summit Greenland Ice core studies, McKirrick and McIntyre, Mann hockey stick, Claude Schaeffer, Mike Baillie, The Ion effect, Harvey Weiss, Peterson ocean core studies, Sequoia dendritic rings, uniformitarianism, Georges Cuvier.
Europe generally during the Little Ice Age
As further proof of the severity of the weather in this region during the Little Ice Age it is important to study the record of severe storms (see Plate 8). Similarly the advance of glaciers is important as an indicator of the severity and coldness of the weather over a sustained, if erratic, period. Various tax records show glaciers over the years destroying whole towns caught in their path. A few major advances, as noted by Ladurie(1) appear below:
- 1595: Gietroz (Switzerland) glacier advances, dammed Dranse River, and caused flooding of Bagne with 70 deaths.
- 1600-10: Advances by Chamonix (France) glaciers because massive floods which destroyed three villages and severely damaged a fourth. One village had stood since the 1200’s.
- 1670-80’s: Maximum historical advances by glaciers in eastern Alps. Noticeable decline of human population by this time in areas close to glaciers, whereas population elsewhere in Europe had risen.
- 1695-1709: Iceland glaciers advance dramatically, destroying farms.
- 1710-1735: A glacier in Norway was advancing at a rate of 100 m per year for 25 years.
- 1748-50: Norwegian glaciers achieved their historical maximum LIA positions.
Further to this we must include anecdotal but legitimate evidence regarding ice formation throughout. An example is the world phenomena of Ice Fares such as the ones on the Thames that only ended in 1815(2).